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Bed bugs have made a major comeback in the U. The rebound in recent years was probably due to multiple factors, including less potent insecticides, global travel, and a loss of vigilance practiced in years past. Whatever the reasons, bed bugs are again part of everyday life, with infestations common in homes, apartments, hotels, dormitories, schools and shelters. They also occur in hospitals, nursing homes, libraries, theaters, offices, municipal buildings, and on public transportation— wherever there are people there can be bed bugs.
Bed bugs are small, brownish insects that feed solely on the blood of animals. Although the common bed bug Cimex lectularius prefers feeding on humans, it will also bite other warm-blooded animals, including dogs, cats, birds and rodents. It has done so since ancient times; bed bugs are mentioned in medieval European texts and classical Greek writings back to the time of Aristotle. Their coloration is similar to an apple seed although their size is closer to a lentil. The bugs are sometimes mistaken for ticks, cockroaches, carpet beetles or other household insects.
Immature bed bugs nymphs resemble the adults, but are smaller and lighter in color. Adult females lay their eggs in secluded places, depositing one, two or more per day, potentially hundreds during their lifetime. The eggs are tiny about the size of a dust spec , whitish and hard to see without magnification, especially on light-colored materials.
When first laid, eggs are sticky, causing them to adhere to surfaces. At room temperature, bed bug eggs hatch in about a week. The newly emerged nymphs are straw-colored and no bigger than a pinhead. As the nymphs grow, they molt, shedding their skin five times before reaching maturity. A blood meal is needed between each successive molt. Adult females must also periodically feed in order to lay eggs.
Cooler temperatures or limited access to a host prolongs development. Given adequate resources, the average lifespan of a bed bug is about 10 months. Bed bugs are resilient. Nymphs and adults can persist months without feeding which is unusual for most insects. In temperature-controlled buildings, a more typical duration without feeding is about 1 to 4 months.
When infested dwellings such as apartments are vacant, bed bugs often disperse to nearby units, or reduce their activity until the unit is reoccupied. Bed bugs are active mainly at night. During the day, they tend to hide close to where people sleep. Initially they tend to be concentrated around beds, sofas, and other sleeping and resting areas—but if infestations are allowed to persist, they may disperse elsewhere making elimination more difficult. Their flattened bodies enable them to fit into tiny crevices no wider than a toothpick. Characteristically, these areas are marked by dark spotting and staining, which is the dried excrement of the bugs.
Another possible are rusty or reddish smears on bed sheets or mattresses from blood-engorged bed bugs that have been crushed. Bed bugs usually bite people at night while they are sleeping. Hungry bed bugs may also feed during the day, especially if this is when the occupant normally sleeps. They feed by piercing the skin with an elongated beak through which they withdraw blood.
Engorgement takes about three to 10 minutes, but because the bite is painless, people seldom realize they are being bitten. Bed bugs normally do not reside on or attach to people like lice or ticks; immediately after feeding they crawl to a secluded location to digest their meal. Symptoms after being bitten by bed bugs vary from person to person. Many develop an itchy red welt within a day or so of the bite. Others have little or no reaction. Sometimes the reaction is delayed days or even weeks, which can make it difficult to determine where or when bites actually occurred.
Studies conducted in bed bug-infested apartments suggest about 30 percent of people do not react even when bitten repeatedly, and even higher levels of non-reactivity occur among the elderly. Unlike fleabites, which occur mainly around the ankles, bed bugs feed on any skin exposed while sleeping face, neck, shoulders, back, arms, legs, etc.
The welts and itching are often wrongly attributed to other causes, such as mosquitoes. As such, infestations may go a long time unnoticed, and can become large before being detected. Bed bugs also are suspect if you wake up with itchy welts you did not have when you went to sleep. A common concern with bed bugs is whether they transmit diseases. Although the bugs can harbor various pathogens, transmission to humans has not been proven and is considered unlikely.
Their medical ificance is mainly attributed to itching and inflammation from their bites. Antihistamines and corticosteroids may be prescribed to reduce allergic reactions, and antiseptic or antibiotic ointments to prevent infection. Though not known to transmit diseases, bed bugs can reduce quality of life by causing discomfort, sleeplessness, anxiety, and embarrassment.
According to some health experts, the added stress from living with bed bugs can have a ificant impact on the emotional health and well-being of certain individuals. Insect repellents used to deter ticks and mosquitoes do not appear to be as effective against bed bugs, and applying them at bedtime is not recommended. It often seems that bed bugs arise from nowhere.
The bugs are efficient hitchhikers and are easily transported into dwellings on luggage, clothing, beds, furniture, and belongings. This is a particular problem for hotels and apartments, where turnover of occupants is constant. Bed bugs are small and agile, avoiding detection by crawling into concealed locations. Acquiring secondhand beds and furniture is another way they can be transported into buildings. Once bed bugs are introduced, they can crawl from room to room, or floor to floor via cracks and openings in walls, floors and ceilings.
Unlike cockroaches and flies that feed on filth, there is often no relationship between bed bugs and cleanliness. Since the bugs feed solely on blood, pristine dwellings can be as vulnerable to infestation as are places of squalor. Nonetheless, poverty and privation are often associated with persistent problems due to an inability to afford professional extermination.
Some bed bug species are parasites of bats or birds e. Although similar in appearance, the species that normally feed on bats and birds can be differentiated from those that prefer humans. Entomologists and pest professionals can make this determination. If bat bugs or bird bugs are present, roosting and nesting sites should be the focus of treatment, combined with exclusion of the wild hosts. Bed bugs are challenging to eradicate. Since they can hide in so many places, inspections must be thorough and elimination is not always a certainty.
Experienced pest controllers know where to look for bed bugs and have an assortment of management tools at their disposal. Bed bugs can live in almost any crevice or protected location. The most common place to find them is beds or areas where people rest or sleep. This is especially true during the early stages of an infestation. As s grow larger, the bugs tend to move beyond beds into other locations, making control more difficult.
Bed bugs often hide in seams, folds and crevices of the mattress, box spring, bed frame and headboard. A thorough inspection requires dismantling the bed, and standing the components on edge so that upper and lower seams and surfaces can be examined. Things to look for are the bugs themselves, shed skins of the nymphs, and the blackish fecal spots. Dark spots of dried bed bug excrement are often present along mattress seams or wherever the bugs have resided.
Box springs afford many places for bed bugs to hide, especially along the upper seams and underneath, where the bottom edge of the box rests on the frame. If an underlying dust cover is present, it may have to be removed to gain access for inspection and possible treatment. Crevices of bed frames also should be examined, especially if the frame is wood. Bed bugs have an affinity for wood and fabric more so than metal or plastic. Wooden support boards, if present, should be removed and examined since bed bugs often congregate where the ends rest on the frame.
Screw holes and other recesses are also common hiding places. Headboards affixed to walls should be removed and inspected. In hotels, the area behind the headboard is often the first place bed bugs become established. Bed bugs also frequently hide within items stored under beds. Upholstered chairs, recliners and sofas are the next most likely areas for bed bugs, and should be examined carefully along seams, skirts and folds of fabric. Sofas and recliners can be major bed bug hotspots, especially when used for sleeping.
Nightstands and dressers may need to be emptied and examined inside and out, and tipped over to inspect the woodwork underneath. Oftentimes the bugs will be hiding in cracks, corners, and recesses.Come on nude girls be my rebound girl
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